The Pediatrics Orthopedic Team

Who treats pediatric orthopedic conditions?

Physical therapist stretches a young patient's leg.

Orthopedic conditions may be treated by your child's healthcare provider and/or other medical specialists. Several doctors from different medical specialties may be involved in the treatment of one child at the same time. This multidisciplinary team approach is particularly important in managing the symptoms of an orthopedic condition, especially as many symptoms are chronic and change in severity over time. Some of the more common medical professionals involved in the treatment of pediatric orthopedic conditions may include:

Pediatrician or primary care doctor

While your pediatrician or primary care doctor may treat and diagnose your child's disease, he or she may refer you to a specialist for more specialized treatment of certain aspects of the disease.

Orthopedic surgeon

The doctor who specializes in orthopedic surgery is called an orthopedic surgeon, or sometimes, simply, an orthopedist. Orthopedists are educated in the workings of the musculoskeletal system. This includes diagnosing a condition or disorder, identifying and treating an injury, providing rehabilitation, or helping prevent further damage to the musculoskeletal system.

The orthopedist may have completed up to 14 years of formal education. After becoming licensed to practice medicine, the orthopedic surgeon may become board-certified by passing both oral and written exams given by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Many orthopedic surgeons choose to practice general orthopedics, while others specialize in certain areas of the body (for example, foot, hand, shoulder, spine, hip, or knee), or in a specialized area of orthopedic care (such as sports medicine, trauma medicine). Some orthopedists may specialize in several areas and may collaborate with other specialists, such as neurosurgeons or rheumatologists, in caring for patients.


A rheumatologist is a doctor who specializes in the treatment of arthritis and other rheumatic diseases that may affect joints, muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues. Most rheumatologists have a background in internal medicine or pediatrics and have additional training in the field of rheumatology. Rheumatologists are specially trained to identify many types of rheumatic diseases in their earliest stages, including arthritis, many types of autoimmune diseases, musculoskeletal pain, disorders of the musculoskeletal system, and osteoporosis. In addition to 4 years of medical school and 3 years of specialized training in internal medicine or pediatrics, a rheumatologist has had an additional 2 or 3 years of specialized training in the field of rheumatology. A rheumatologist may also be board-certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine or the American Board of Pediatrics.

Physical therapist

Physical therapy is the health profession that focuses on the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, and cardiopulmonary systems of the human body, as these systems relate to human motion and function.
Physical therapists, or PTs, are very important members of the healthcare team. They evaluate and provide treatment for children with health problems resulting from injury, disease, or overuse of muscles or tendons.

Physical therapists have an undergraduate degree in physical therapy, and many have a master's or doctorate degree. To practice, all graduates must be licensed by their state by passing a national certification exam.

Physical therapists may practice in a variety of settings, including:

  • Hospitals

  • Rehabilitation centers

  • Home health agencies

  • Schools

  • Sports facilities

  • Community health centers

  • Private practice

As related to orthopedic conditions, physical therapists provide comprehensive treatment that includes:

  • Functional mobility

  • Balance and gait retraining

  • Soft-tissue mobilization

  • Body mechanics education

  • Wheelchair safety and management

  • Neuromuscular re-education

  • Exercise programming

  • Family education and training

  • Assistance with pain relief and management

  • Instruction in safe ambulation

Occupational therapist

Occupational therapy is a healthcare profession that uses "occupation," or purposeful activity, to help children with physical, developmental, or emotional disabilities lead independent, productive, and satisfying lives.

An occupational therapist often coordinates the following in the care for the person with a debilitating condition, such as an orthopedic condition:

  • Evaluating children with developmental, neuromuscular problems in order to plan treatment activities that will help them grow mentally, socially, and physically

  • Assisting children in learning how to carry out daily tasks

  • Conducting group or individual treatment to help children in a mental health center learn to cope with daily activities

  • Recommending changes in layout and design of the home or school to allow children with injuries or disabilities greater access and mobility

Occupational therapists work in a variety of different settings, including:

  • Hospitals

  • Rehabilitation centers

  • Schools

  • Home care agencies

  • Private practice

  • Government agencies


Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), also known as physiatry, is a medical specialty that involves the process of restoring lost abilities for a person who has been disabled as a result of disease, disorder, or injury. Physiatry provides integrated, multidisciplinary care aimed at recovery for the whole person — by addressing the person's physical, psychological, medical, vocational, and social needs. The doctor who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation is called a physiatrist. Physiatrists are board certified by the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 


A podiatrist specializes in foot care and is licensed to prescribe medicine and is allowed to perform some surgery.

Nurses/nurse practitioners

Nurse practitioners specialized in the care of orthopedic conditions may assist your child's doctor in providing care. In addition, these nurses will help you to understand your child's treatment plan and can answer many of your questions.

Depending on the specific condition involved, other doctors and healthcare professionals may be involved in treating orthopedic conditions. For example, a neurologist or neurosurgeon may assist in treating problems involving the spine because of involvement of the spinal cord.