Methotrexate to Treat an Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilized egg implants outside the womb (uterus). In most cases, it implants in a fallopian tube. This is a tube that goes from the uterus to an ovary. When this happens, the embryo can’t grow normally. In some cases, it may stop growing quickly. Or it may grow until the fallopian tube tears (ruptures). This can cause severe bleeding and a risk for death for the mother.

Methotrexate is a medication that stops the embryo from growing. The tissue is then absorbed by the mother’s body. This treatment can prevent the rupture, bleeding, and risk of death to the mother. Methotrexate is often used instead of surgery to remove the fetus. Surgery has risks such as bleeding, infection, scarring of the fallopian tube, infertility, and the risks of anesthesia.

Having Methotrexate Treatment

Methotrexate is most often given by a shot (injection) into a muscle. It can also be given through an IV.

After having the shot, you may have:

  • Mild abdominal pain or cramping

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Diarrhea

  • Fatigue

Care at Home

Once you are home, you can resume normal activities as you are able. You will have some bleeding and pain. While you are recovering, you can use acetaminophen for pain if advised by your health care provider.

Until your health care provider says it’s OK, do NOT:

  • Take anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen

  • Have foods or vitamins that contain folic acid or folate

  • Drink alcohol

  • Take penicillin

  • Use tampons or douche

  • Have sexual intercourse

Make sure to:

  • Avoid the sun during the first week after your shot. Sun can cause a rash during this time.

  • Use birth control for at least 3 months after treatment.

  • Talk with a counselor if you feel sadness or grief after pregnancy loss.

Follow Up

You will have blood tests several times in the weeks after you have the shot. This is to make sure that your pregnancy hormone (HCG) level is getting lower. This shows that the fetus is no longer growing. It may take up to 4 weeks for your level to drop to zero. Most women need only one shot. If HCG levels are not low enough, your health care provider may give you a second shot. In some cases, this treatment does not work and surgery is needed. Your health care provider can tell you more about surgery for ectopic pregnancy.


When to Call the Health Care Provider

Call your health care provider if you have:

  • Lower abdominal pain that gets worse or doesn’t go away

  • Heavy vaginal bleeding

  • Nausea or vomiting that needs treatment

  • Dizziness, weakness, or fainting

  • Fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher