• Congestive Heart Failure
    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can no longer pump enough blood to the rest of the body; also known as CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure
  • Abnormal Heart Rhythms
    An abnormal heart rhythm is a heartbeat that is too slow or too fast; it can also involve a fluttering sensation in the chest or skipped heartbeats; also known as arrhythmia, this condition may cause an uneven distribution of blood in the body
  • Aortic regurgitation or insufficiency
    Aortic regurgitation or insufficiency is a condition in which the aortic valve allows blood to leak backward into the heart. Aortic regurgitation may also lead to symptoms similar to heart failure
  • Aortic Stenosis
    The aorta is the main artery carrying blood out of the heart. When blood leaves the heart, it flows through the aortic valve, into the aorta. In aortic stenosis, the aortic valve does not open fully, which . This decreases blood flow from the heart;. The heart must then work harder to push blood through the body, which can cause fatigue, shortness of breath and worsening heart function. Aortic Stenosis is also known as Aortic valve stenosis; Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction; Rheumatic aortic stenosis; Calcium aortic stenosis
  • Atrial fibrillation (AFib)
    Atrial fibrillation is an electrical disorder involving the atria and represents a chaotic electrical process that renders the atria nonfunctional. The end result is stasis of blood in the atria and appendage which can lead to stroke, loss of atrial contractility leading to decreased cardiac output, and in an uncorrected AFib myopathy as a result of chronic uncontrolled ventricular rate. AFib is categorized as either paroxysmal, persistent or chronic
  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)/patent foramen ovale (PFO)
    An ASD is a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the two upper (atrial) chambers of the heart. A PFO is a condition in which a small opening in the atrial septum fails to seal after birth. Some patients with a PFO can develop stroke when small blood clots cross from the right-sided collecting chamber to the left-sided collecting chamber (atrium), ultimately flowing into the brain.
    In the past, people with holes in their hearts could face a lifetime of anticoagulant therapy or even open-heart surgery in order to reduce their high risk of stroke. Some BayCare facilities now offer a minimally invasive option to close a variety of cardiac holes, including atrial and ventricular septal defects and patent foramen ovales. During these procedures, a hollow catheter is threaded through a blood vessel and guided to the site of the defect. Once in place, it’s used to deliver a collapsed mesh closure device and place it inside the defect. The device is then activated, expanding to block the opening and hold the device in place, and the catheter is removed. Recovery time following placement is considerably shorter compared with traditional surgery
  • Bradyarrhythmias
    Premature conduction disease may result in low heart rates insufficient to maintain activities of daily living and, in severe cases, loss of consciousness. Management includes removing offending agents or conditions which may cause bradycardia and, in irreversible cases, placement of a pacemaker
  • Carotid Artery Disease
    The carotid arteries provide the main blood supply to the brain. There carotid arteries are located on each side of your neck under the jawline. Carotid artery disease is a condition in which these arteries become narrowed or blocked. When the arteries become narrowed, the condition is called carotid stenosis
  • Channelopathies
    The myocardium relies on appropriate functioning of the ion channels. In some patients, genetic abnormalities of these ion channels can result in arrhythmia; at times life threatening. Appropriate management relies on genetic testing and counseling and, in some cases, protection against ventricular arrhythmia with defibrillator therapy
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)
    Fibromuscular dysplasia is an accumulation of fibrous tissues in the arteries that causes them to narrow. The condition can occur in any artery but occurs most often in kidney or neck arteries
  • Heart Attack
    A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of your heart is blocked for a long enough time that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies. Your doctor calls this a myocardial infarction. Also known as Myocardial infarction; MI; Acute MI; ST-elevation myocardial infarction; non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction
  • Heart Failure
    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can no longer pump enough blood to the rest of the body. Also known as CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure
  • Heart Palpitations
    Palpitations are heartbeat sensations that feel like your heart is pounding or racing. You may simply have an unpleasant awareness of your own heartbeat, or may feel skipped or stopped beats. The heart's rhythm may be normal or abnormal. Palpitations can be felt in your chest, throat, or neck. Also known as Arrhythmia; Heartbeat sensations; Irregular heartbeat; Palpitations; Heart pounding or racing
  • Heart Valve Disease
    Heart valve disease occurs when one or more heart valves function improperly. These are the aortic, mitral, pulmonic and tricuspid valves. Problems with these valves cause the heart to overwork
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes thick. The thickening makes it harder for blood to leave the heart, forcing the heart to work harder to pump blood. Also known as Cardiomyopathy - hypertrophic (HCM); IHSS; Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis; Asymmetric septal hypertrophy; ASH; HOCM; Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
  • Marfan Syndrome
    Marfan syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue, the tissue that strengthens the body's structures. Disorders of connective tissue affect the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, eyes, and skin. Marfan syndrome is caused by defects in a gene called fibrillin-1. Fibrillin-1 plays an important role as the building block for elastic tissue in the body
  • Mitral regurgitation or insufficiency
    Mitral regurgitation is a condition in which the heart’s mitral valve leaflets don’t close tightly. When this happens, blood flows backward from the heart’s left ventricle into the left atrium. This reduces the effectiveness of the heart to pump blood to the body, which can cause fatigue
  • Mitral stenosis
    A result of having rheumatic fever as a child, and leads to calcium deposits on the mitral valve leaflets, preventing them from opening or closing properly. This condition can lead to increased pressure in the lungs, possibly causing permanent damage
  • Pericardial Effusion
    "Fluid around the heart" is the common description for pericardial effusion. The heart is surrounded by a sac called the pericardium and excess fluid builds up in the pericardial cavity. Many different medical conditions are associated with pericardial effusions
  • Pericarditis
    Pericarditis is a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed. See also: Bacterial pericarditis. Pericarditis is usually a complication of viral infections, most commonly echovirus or coxsackie virus. Less frequently, it is caused by influenza or HIV infection
  • Peripheral Artery Disease
    Peripheral artery disease is a condition of the blood vessels that leads to narrowing and hardening of the arteries that supply the legs and feet. The narrowing of the blood vessels leads to decreased blood flow, which can injure nerves and other tissues. Also known as Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent claudication; Vaso-occlusive disease of the legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise
  • Sleep Apnea
    Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition in which the flow of air pauses or decreases during breathing while you are asleep because the airway has become narrowed, blocked, or floppy. A pause in breathing is called an apnea episode. A decrease in airflow during breathing is called a hypopnea episode. Almost everyone has brief apnea episodes while they sleep. Also known as obstructive apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing; OSA
  • Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)
    SVT, or narrow complex tachycardia, represents a group of rhythm disorders that predominantly occur in the atria. Fortunately, these arrhythmias are easily treatable. They commonly manifest with palpitations, dizziness and, at times, loss of consciousness.
  • Syncope
    The sudden and transient loss of consciousness associated with the loss of postural tone. Syncope can occur as a result of low heart rate, fast heart rate or dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system
  • Ventricular Tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF)
    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a rapid heartbeat that starts in the ventricles; also known as Wide-complex tachycardia; V tach; Tachycardia – ventricular. Patients with compromised left ventricular function are at risk for developing ventricular arrhythmias and represent the mechanism of sudden cardiac death in these patients and patients who’ve had myocardial infarctions. These disorders have been historically managed with defibrillator therapy; however, with advancements in technique and equipment, ablation is now considered an acceptable method of managing this rhythm disorder

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