When Your Child Has Epiglottitis

The epiglottis is a small flap of tissue at the back of the throat. It stops food and liquids from entering the trachea (windpipe) when a person eats or drinks. The rest of the time, it lifts so air can flow easily into and out of the lungs. Epiglottitis (infection of the epiglottis) causes swelling that may close off the airway and make breathing difficult. It requires medical care right away.


Side view of child leaning over with mouth open. Throat anatomy shows epiglottitis.

Side view of child's head showing throat anatomy with inflamed epiglottis.


What causes epiglottitis?

Most often, epiglottitis results from infection with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacteria. The bacteria spread through the air in tiny droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The infection starts with a high fever and sore throat. Breathing problems can come on quickly. Since the advent of the Hib vaccine, this infection is very rare. Talk to your child's doctor about the Hib vaccination.

Epiglottitis is an emergency!

Epiglottitis can be fatal if not treated quickly. If your child has any of the symptoms below, call 911 or emergency services right away:

  • Trouble swallowing, breathing, and talking

  • Straining the neck forward (an attempt to open the airway)

  • Drooling (when it becomes too painful to swallow)

  • A harsh raspy sound when inhaling (stridor), a sign that the airways are blocked

  • Blue skin or lips

When these symptoms occur:

  • Don’t try to examine your child’s throat yourself—you may make matters worse.

  • Don’t give your child food, water, or cough medicines.

  • Don’t encourage your child to lie down.

How is epiglottitis treated?

  • To allow air into the lungs, doctors may place a breathing tube into the windpipe. The tube is inserted through your child’s nose or mouth. It provides an airway around the swelling, allowing air to flow freely into and out of the lungs. The breathing tube must stay in place until the swelling in the throat has gone down.

  • In the most serious cases, doctors may create an emergency airway into the windpipe directly through the neck.

  • Once your child is breathing more easily, certain tests may also be done. These may include X-rays, blood tests, and a throat culture (a test that looks for bacteria in a sample of material from the throat).

  • Antibiotics and fluids will be given through an IV line.

  • Your child’s breathing will be watched closely.

What are long-term concerns?

With treatment, most children get better with no lasting effects.

The Hib vaccine

Vaccination with the Hib vaccine is the best way to prevent epiglottitis. Although other germs can lead to epiglottitis, Hib bacteria are the most common cause. Children usually receive the vaccine at:

  • 2 months

  • 4 months

  • 6 months (if needed, depending on the brand of vaccine)

  • 12 to 15 months