Nutritional Requirements for a Child With Cancer
The importance of good nutrition
Good nutrition is very important for children being treated for cancer. Children with cancer often have poor appetites due to one, or more, of the following:
The hospital environment
Side effects of chemotherapy or radiation
Pain when eating
Changes in the way food tastes
Side effects from medicines
Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
Poor nutrition contributes to poor growth. If a child with cancer gets good nutrition, then he or she may be more likely to:
Better tolerate chemotherapy or radiation and with fewer side effects
Grow and develop
Maximize their quality of life
Special diets for children with cancer
Children with cancer often need more calories and protein. Protein is needed for growth and to help the body repair itself. Getting enough calories can help the body grow, heal, and prevent weight loss. If your child is having trouble eating enough calories and protein, your child's healthcare provider or dietitian may suggest serving high-calorie and high-protein foods, such as eggs, milk, peanut butter, and cheese.
Sometimes, even when high-calorie and high-protein foods are offered, children with cancer have trouble eating enough. Tube feedings may be needed to help give your child enough nutrition or to prevent malnutrition. This involves placing a small tube (called a nasogastric, or NG tube) through the nose, down the food pipe (esophagus), and into the stomach. A high-calorie formula or supplement can be given to your child through this tube to help promote appropriate growth and development.
Children undergoing treatment for cancer sometimes need total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to help meet their nutritional needs. TPN is a special mixture of glucose, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals that is given through an IV (intravenous) into the veins. Many people call this "intravenous feedings." TPN provides the nutrients your child needs when he or she can't eat or absorb the nutrients from foods. The TPN solution is usually given over several hours each day. While IV nutrition may seem easy, long-term use can cause side effects and nothing is better than taking in food and calories through the stomach when possible.
Sometimes after chemotherapy, blood counts may be low. During these times, your healthcare team may suggest avoiding certain foods like uncooked vegetables and undercooked meats. Make sure to discuss special diet restrictions with your healthcare team.
Managing treatment side effects and maintaining proper nutrition
Your child's cancer treatment may cause side effects that make it hard to eat enough food. These are some of the common side effects and ideas for managing them.
Try smaller, more frequent meals and snacks.
Try changing the time, place, and surroundings for meals.
Let your child help with shopping and preparing meals.
Offer high-calorie, high-protein meals and snacks.
Don't force your child to eat. This may make his or her appetite worse.
Make mealtime a happy time.
Offer soft foods that are easy to chew.
Avoid foods that irritate the mouth, including:
Citrus fruits or juices (such as orange, tangerine, grapefruit)
Spicy or salty foods
Rough, coarse, or dry foods (such as raw vegetables, crackers, pretzels, chips, toast)
Cut foods into small pieces.
Serve foods cold or at room temperature. Hot foods may irritate the mouth and throat.
Use a blender to make foods softer and easier to chew.
Add sauces or gravies to food to make them easier to swallow.
Offer salty or seasoned foods.
Use flavorful seasoning on foods.
Marinate meats in fruit juice, teriyaki sauce, or Italian dressing.
Try serving foods at different temperatures.
Offer foods that look and smell good.
Keep your child's mouth clean by rinsing and brushing.
Try sweet or sour foods and drinks such as lemonade (but not if mouth sores are a problem).
Offer hard candy, popsicles, ice chips, or chewing gum.
Offer softer foods that may be easier to swallow.
Keep your child's lips moist with lip balm.
Offer small, frequent sips of water.
Offer foods that have more liquid in them.
Nausea and vomiting
Try easy-to-digest food such as clear liquids, gelatin, toast, rice, dry cereals, and crackers.
Avoid foods that are fried, greasy, very sweet, spicy, hot, or strong-flavored.
Offer small, frequent meals.
Offer sips of water, juices, sports drinks, or other beverages throughout the day.
Try to avoid high-fiber foods, including:
Nuts and seeds
Dried beans and peas
Raw fruits and vegetables
Try to limit greasy, fatty, or fried foods.
Limit gassy foods, including:
Offer small, frequent meals and liquids throughout the day.
Limit milk and milk products if lactose intolerance is a problem.
Offer plenty of liquids throughout the day.
Offer high-fiber foods, including:
Whole grain breads and cereals
Raw fruits and vegetables
Raisins and prunes
Drink plenty of fluids; hot drinks are sometimes helpful.
Keep the skin on vegetables when cooking them.
Add bran or wheat germ to foods such as casseroles, cereals, or homemade breads.
Use a soft toothbrush and take your child to the dentist regularly.
Encourage rinsing the mouth with warm water when gums and mouth are sore.
Encourage gently brushing teeth after eating meals and sweets.
Limit foods that stick to the teeth, such as caramels, taffy, gummy candy, or chewy candy bars.
The treatment of cancer can be hard for anyone of any age. Supportive care (treatment of disease side effects or symptoms) from your child's healthcare team can make the nutritional part of treatment less difficult. Suggestions for creating a child-centered environment, making tasty, high-calorie snacks, and possible alternatives to oral nutrition are a part of the supportive care included in the treatment of cancer.
Every child is different and every child tolerates treatment differently. Your child's doctor and healthcare team will discuss the best method of promoting healthy nutrition during your child's treatment.